Increasing Light: The period from the new moon to the full moon, which is the period in which the light is increasing, is best for planting annuals which provide their yield above the ground.
Decreasing Light: The period from the full moon to the new moon, when the light is decreasing, is best for planting biennials (those plants on a two-year cycle), perennials, and root and bulb crops. Plant potatoes during the dark of the moon" is an old adage.
During the first quarter, or the time from the new moon to about half- full, plant annuals with above-ground yields, particularly leafy plants which produce their seed outside the fruit. Some examples of first quarter plants are asparagus,
cabbage, celery, endive, and spinach.
During the second quarter, or the time from the half-full to the full moon, plant annuals that have above-ground yields which are vining and produce seed inside the fruit. Second quarter plants include beans, peas, peppers, squash, eggplant, tomatoes, and cucumbers.
Some plants, such as garlic, melons, hay, and grains and cereals, do well if planted in either the first or second quarter.
During the third quarter, from the full moon to half-full, plant biennials, perennials, bulb and root crops, any crops which are planted in one season to winter over and produce yields the following year, trees, and shrubs. Some third
quarter plants include onions, potatoes, rhubarb, grapes, winter wheat, and berries.
During the fourth quarter, from half-full to new moon,cultivate, pull weeds, destroy pests, and turn sod. This is not the time to plant anything.